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英文文法懸垂分詞(Dangling Participle)Followed的正確用法

作者: Steve Wallace


發布日期: 2020 / 12 / 16,

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英文文法懸垂分詞(Dangling Participle)Followed的正確用法

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隨手拿起一本講英文文法的書,裡面都可以找到討論懸垂分詞(dangling participle)的段落

 

分詞是從動詞變形而來,但功能卻是形容詞。因此,必須要有適當的名詞來修飾才行。如果沒有符合這項條件,就稱為懸垂(dangling)狀態。

 

這一次,我要把重點放在某個常常在學術寫作中變成懸垂狀態的分詞,也就是「followed」這一個過去分詞,讓我們先看一個引導句:

 

原句:

 

Metal precursors were introduced into separate polymer blocks, followed by removal of the templates by pyrolysis.

 

這裡followed是修飾哪個名詞?也就是說,removal of the templates這個動作之後,接下來是什麼?不管是blocks這個位置最接近的名詞,還是precursors這個句子一開頭就出現的名詞,看起來都不對。

 

在作者腦海裡,followed是用來修飾一個實際上沒有出現在句子裡的名詞,即「introduction」,可以修改成:

 

Introduction of the metal precursors was followed by removal of the templates by pyrolysis.

 

把所指的對象明確寫出來是解決問題的一個方法。

 

另一個方法則是把分詞片語轉換成一個子句,然後加上「subsequently」一字來指示事情的先後順序,所以也可以修改成:

 

Metal precursors were introduced into separate polymer blocks, and the templates were subsequently removed by pyrolysis.

 

以下再多舉幾個例句,凸顯修改前後的對比:

 

原句:

 

We prepared anhydrous CDCl3 by drying commercial CDCl3 over CaSO4 followed by distillation under nitrogen.

 

編修後:

 

We prepared anhydrous CDCl3 by drying commercial CDCl3 over CaSO4 and then distilling it under nitrogen.

 

原句:

 

Coated coverslips were prepared by adding polymer solution (20 μL) followed by spin-coating.

 

編修後:

 

Coated coverslips were prepared by the addition of polymer solution (20 μL) and subsequent spin-coating.

 

原句:

 

In 1997, continuous monitoring of CO was initiated on the first ship followed by the other two ships in 1998 and 1999, respectively.

 

編修後:

 

In 1997, continuous monitoring of CO was initiated on the first ship, and CO monitoring on the other two ships began in 1998 and 1999, respectively.

 

原句:

 

The catalyst and the activated carbon were mixed in an agate mortar, followed by pelletizing and sieving into 0.15–0.25 mm granules.

 

編修後:

 

The catalyst and the activated carbon were mixed in an agate mortar, and the mixture was then pelletized and sieved into 0.15–0.25 mm granules.

 

原句:

 

The sample was pretreated in 5% O2/He at 500°C for 1 h, followed by cooling down to 150°C.

 

編修後:

 

The sample was pretreated in 5% O2/He at 500°C for 1 h and then cooled to 150°C.

 

原句:

 

Cooperative action of the anion and the metal center promoted ring opening to generate an oxyanion, which then attacked CO2 followed by ring closure to afford the cyclic carbonate.

 

編修後:

 

1. Cooperative action of the anion and the metal center promoted ring opening to generate an oxyanion, which then attacked CO2; subsequent ring closure afforded the cyclic carbonate.

2. Cooperative action of the anion and the metal center promoted ring opening to generate an oxyanion; the oxyanion then attacked CO2, and subsequent ring closure afforded the cyclic carbonate.

 

原句:

 

The focal adhesions at the blunt end of the teardrop were retracted, whereas those at the sharp end were extended, followed by nucleus translocation into the neighboring teardrop.

 

編修後:

 

1. The focal adhesions at the blunt end of the teardrop were retracted, whereas those at the sharp end were extended; the nucleus was subsequently translocated into the neighboring teardrop.

2. The focal adhesions at the blunt end of the teardrop were retracted. In contrast, those at the sharp end were extended, and the nucleus was subsequently translocated into the neighboring teardrop.

 

原句:

 

The lysates were incubated with MeHg for 30 min at 37°C, followed by reaction with 10 µM BPM for 30 min at 37°C.

 

編修後:

 

The lysates were incubated with MeHg for 30 min at 37°C and then allowed to react with 10 µM BPM for 30 min at 37°C.

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

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  2. 如何正確使用適當的英文動詞句子
  3. 學術寫作中不該把英文單字Concerning當作形容詞使用
  4. 學術論文可以使用哪些英文連接詞或片語?
  5. 學術論文寫作中的冠詞定義及正確用法
Predominantly、Mainly、Mostly等英文副詞在句子裡所在位置的重要性
學術寫作中不該把英文單字Concerning當作形容詞使用
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