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英文研究論文:專有名詞定義的句型解釋與範例

作者: Steve Wallace


發布日期: 2016 / 9 / 22,

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英文研究論文:專有名詞定義的句型解釋與範例

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研究論文中用於定義專有名詞的句型

 

撰寫學術論文時,作者通常會藉由定義關鍵字或詞組,幫助讀者清楚了解這些名詞,讓他們在這些關鍵名詞出現時,能夠確知其意義。

 

如果讀者不了解重要字詞的意思,便可能導致誤解。事實上,當研究者意見相左時,大多是因為對同一名詞有不同解釋。也因此,在學術寫作中,作者經常需在進行討論前,探究這些專有名詞不同的詮釋。

 

相關文章推薦:論文標題:「關鍵字」和「重點」

 

介紹定義的句型

 

  1. It is necessary here to clarify exactly what is meant by …
  2. There is a degree of uncertainty around the terminology in …
  3. This shows a need to be explicit about exactly what is meant by the word X.
  4. X is a term frequently used in the literature, but to date there is no consensus about …

 

簡易的三段式定義句型

 

A university is an institution where knowledge is produced and passed on to others.
Social Economics may be defined as the branch of economics [which is] concerned with the measurement, causes, and consequences of social problems.
Research may be defined as a systematic process which consists of three elements or components: (1) a question, problem, or hypothesis, (2) data, and (3) analysis and interpretation of data.
Braille is a system of touch reading and writing for blind people in which raised dots on paper represent the letters of the alphabet.

 

一般意義或應用上的意義

 

  1. The term X refers to …
  2. The term X encompasses A), B), and C).
  3. X can be defined as … It encompasses …
  4. X can be loosely described as a correlation.
  5. The term X has come to be used to refer to …
  6. The term X is generally understood to mean …
  7. The term X has been applied to situations where students …
  8. In the literature, the term tends to be used to refer to …
  9. The broad use of the term X is sometimes equated with …
  10. Whereas X refers to the operations of …, Y refers to the …
  11. The term disease refers to a biological event characterized by …
  12. The term X is a relatively new name for a Y, commonly referred to…
  13. In broad biological terms, X can be defined as any stimulus that is …
  14. Defined as XYZ, obesity is now considered a worldwide epidemic and is associated with …

 

指出專有名詞難以定義的原因

 

  1. A generally accepted definition of X is lacking.
  2. Unfortunately, X remains a poorly defined term.
  3. The term X embodies a multitude of concepts which …
  4. A further definition is given by Smith (1982) who describes …
  5. In the field of language teaching, various definitions of X are found.
  6. Smith (2001) identified four abilities that might be subsumed under the term X: a) …
  7. Although differences of opinion still exist, there appears to be some agreement that X refers to …
  8. X is a commonly-used notion in language learning and yet it is a concept difficult to define precisely.

 

指定專有名詞在文章或論文中的使用方式

 

  1. The term X will be used solely when referring to …
  2. In the present report, X was therefore defined in terms of …
  3. In this essay, the term X will be used in its broadest sense to refer to all …
  4. In this paper, the term that will be used to describe this phenomenon is X.
  5. In this dissertation, the terms X and Y are used interchangeably to mean …
  6. Throughout this thesis, the term education is used to refer to informal systems as well as …
  7. While a variety of definitions of the term X have been suggested, this paper will use the definition first suggested by Smith (1968) who saw it as …

 

引用他人定義:著名作者

 

  1. For Smith (2001), fluency means/refers to …
  2. Smith (2001) uses the term ‘fluency’ to refer to …
  3. Smith (1954) was apparently the first to use the term …
  4. The term ‘fluency’ is used by Smith (2001) to refer to …
  5. Macro-stabilization policy is defined by Smith (2003: 119) as ‘… …’
  6. This definition is close to those of Smith (2012) and Jones (2013) who define X as …
  7. In 1987, sports psychologist John Smith popularized the term ‘X’ to describe …
  8. According to a definition provided by Smith (2001:23), fluency is ‘the maximally …
  9. Aristotle defines the imagination as ‘the movement which results upon an actual sensation.’
  10. One of the first people to define nursing was Florence Nightingale (1860), who wrote: ‘… …’
  11. Chomsky writes that a grammar is a ‘device of some sort for producing the ….’ (1957, p.11).
  12. Smith, has shown that, as late as 1920, Jones was using the term ‘X’ to refer to particular …
  13. The term ‘matter’ is used by Aristotle in four overlapping senses. First, it is the underlying … Secondly, it is the potential which …
  14. Smith et al. (2002) have provided a new definition of health:
    ‘health is a state of being with physical, cultural, psychological …’

 

引用他人定義:一般作者

 

  1. Validity is the degree to which an assessment process or device measures what it is intended to measure (Smith et al., 1986).

 

評述定義

 

This definition includes …
allows for …
highlights the …
helps distinguish …
takes into account …
poses a problem for …
will continue to evolve.
can vary depending on …
was agreed upon after …
has been broadened to include …
The following definition is intended to …
modelled on …
too simplistic:
useful because …
problematic as …
inadequate since …
in need of revision since …
important for what it excludes.
the most precise produced so far.

 

希望您下次在論文中定義專有名詞時,這些句型能對您有所幫助。

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

  1. 如何確認主詞動詞單複數一致性?
  2. 如何正確使用形容詞和名詞
  3. 學術寫作可以使用那些連接詞或片語?
  4. 來自讀者的兩個文法問題:共同所有格、動名詞與不定詞
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