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如何簡化英文關係子句

作者: Steve Wallace


發布日期: 2022 / 11 / 18,

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如何簡化英文關係子句

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關係子句通常都能簡化為更精簡的單位。因此,在英文寫作中,可以考慮刪除一些不必要的字,讓關係子句縮短,把句子變得更簡潔。以下將介紹簡化關係子句的幾種方法:

 

方法一:將關係子句改為形容詞片語

 

Jane, who was late again today, sat next to me during lunch.

 

簡化後:Jane, late again today, sat next to me during lunch.

 

The wife, who was angry with her husband, did not return home last night.

 

簡化後:The wife, angry with her husband, did not return home last night.

 

以上兩個例句中,關係子句內的關係代名詞 + be動詞(who was)一起省略掉後就能簡化成形容詞片語。省略後的形容詞片語功能上與原句的關係子句一樣修飾前面的名詞。

 

方法二:將關係子句改為分詞片語

 

The dog which is sitting at the door is waiting for its owner.

 

簡化後:The dog sitting at the door is waiting for its owner.

 

同樣地,原句中的關係代名詞 + be動詞(which is)可以省略,把關係子句簡化成分詞片語。

 

而以下兩個例句則使用另一種簡化方式。

 

The man who lives next door teaches in a public school.

 

簡化後:The man living next door teaches in a public school.

 

句中的who與lives 是主動關係,把關係代名詞who拿掉之後,動詞lives改為表示主動的現在分詞living,living next door則為簡化過後的分詞片語,修飾前面的名詞the man。

 

Students who hand in the report late will lose five marks.

 

簡化後:Students handing in the report late will lose five marks.

 

句中的who與hand in這個動作是主動關係,把關係代名詞who刪除後,動詞hand改為現在分詞handing,簡化成分詞片語,修飾名詞students。

 

We all read the e-mail that was sent by the manager earlier today.

 

簡化後:We all read the e-mail sent by the manager earlier today.

 

Discrimination that is based on race, gender, age, or disability is not allowed.

 

簡化後:Discrimination based on race, gender, age, or disability is not allowed.

 

以上兩個例句中的關係字句使用被動語態,直接將關係代名詞 + be動詞(that was/that is)省略後就形成過去分詞的分詞片語。

 

方法三:將關係子句改為介系詞片語

 

The woman who is in the meeting room is our new team member.

 

簡化後:The woman in the meeting room is our new team member.

 

此句同樣出現關係代名詞 + be動詞(who is),省略後剩下in the meeting room的部分就是介系詞片語。

 

The two-story house that had a beautiful front yard was sold $300,000.

 

簡化後:The two-story house with a beautiful front yard was sold $300,000.

 

關係子句中即使沒有關係代名詞 + be動詞的部分還是能夠簡化為介系詞片語。以上句為例,原來關係子句中的動詞had可以使用介系詞with替換,將關係代名詞刪除後就能形成介系詞片語。

 

另外,一個關係子句不一定只有一種簡化方式,以下兩個例句除了能用分詞片語寫也能用介系詞片語寫。

 

The student who is wearing a blue jacket is a member of the science club.

 

簡化後:

The student wearing a blue jacket is a member of the science club.

The student in a blue jacket is a member of the science club.

 

The lady who is standing on the stage is the newly elected mayor.

 

簡化後:

The lady standing on the stage is the newly elected mayor.

The lady on the stage in the newly elected mayor.

 

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