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為什麼學術科學類英文論文很少使用直接引述?

by Steve Wallace


Posted on 2015 / 11 / 6,

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為什麼學術科學類英文論文很少使用直接引述?

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提問:「我發現科學類論文並不常使用直接引述;科學類論文的作者一般都只會將引文依原意加以改寫或註明出處。請問直接引述適用於科學類論文嗎?」

-T. H-L博士生,東海大學科學院

 

回答:

不同於其他類的論文寫作,科學類論文寫作極少使用直接引述。為什麼呢?因為直接引述通常會轉移作者欲表達的論點。較無經驗的作者可能傾向於使用直接引述,尤其當他不了解所引述論點的含意時。

 

然而,倘若作者十分了解自己的研究主題,那他便能夠從相關期刊文章裡,依據對原意的理解加以改寫,再巧妙的點出引文的論點,同時也不會因為改寫而喪失原文的要旨。從改寫這動作也可以看出作者充分理解原文中欲表達的論點。

 

科學論文寫作:不恰當的直接引述

 

1. 在研究計畫、報告書、以證據為基礎的評論和文獻探討中,敘述已公開發表的研究發現。

 

上述類別的科學論文寫作的主要目的是概述和綜合某一特定領域的研究;因此,直接引述特定的研究發現稱不上是有效率的概述和整合。

 

錯誤的引述方式:

 

Academic motivation has been identified as an important variable when examining first-year student success; however, results of previous research are inconsistent (Allen, 1999; French & Oakes, 2003). While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Grabiel (1995) found that “student motivation and persistence were significantly correlated,” (p. 18) Allen (1999) reported that “student motivation and persistence were positively correlated only for the subset of first-year students of color” (p. 477).

 

正確的改寫:

 

(a) Academic motivation has been identified as an important variable when examining first-year student success; however, results of previous research are inconsistent (Allen, 1999; French & Oakes, 2003). While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Grabiel (1995) found a significant positive correlation between student motivation and persistence, Allen (1999) found that the positive relationship only existed for students of color.

 

(b) While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Gabriel (1995) found that greater student motivation predicted greater persistence, Allen (1999) replicated this relationship only among students of color.

 

2. 提供一項理論或概念的定義。

 

雖然直接引述理論或概念的定義並非錯誤的做法,但科學類論文很少出現這樣的用法;相較之下,依據原意改寫較為合適,因為意譯正好說明了作者對該研究主題具備有一定的知識。

 

From Brewin’s (2014) recent theory paper discussing different types of memory related to posttraumatic stress disorder:

 

應該避免:

 

Sensory memory or iconic memory is defined by Long (1980) as “a persistence effect in the form of a rapidly decaying image or icon following the termination of a brief stimulus” (p. 787).

 

較好:

 

The term sensory memory, or iconic memory, generally refers to a short-term memory store that briefly retains sensory traces. According to Long (1980), these traces exist as an image that quickly disappears after some type of brief visual stimulus is presented.

 

3. 操作性定義和變數的名稱不需直接引述。

 

Bert and Ernie (2014) found that bullying behavior [variable name], operationalized as the frequency of verbal taunts occurring during recess [operational definition], positively predicted future incarceration.

 

科學論文寫作:恰當的直接引述

 

在少數情況下,敘述某研究特定理論或概念的歷史脈絡時,適合使用直接引述:

 

1. 引述某個跟您的研究直接相關,且具開創性的歷史性文章。

 

在某些情況下,如果原文所提出的獨特見解難以透過改寫或概括的方式表述的話,那麼直接引述原文的內容是合適的。

 

“A focus of interest for those studying emotion and memory has been the level of recall for the circumstances in which individuals learned of shocking events such as the assassination of a prominent public figure. These were termed flashbulb memories (R. Brown & Kulik, 1977), because they possessed ‘a primary, live quality that is almost perceptual. Indeed, [a flashbulb memory] is very like a photograph that indiscriminately preserves the scene in which each of us found himself when the flashbulb was fired’ (p. 74). This account of flashbulb memory followed an existing notion…”

 

Brewin, C.R. (2014). Episodic memory, perceptual memory, and their interaction: Foundations for a theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 69-97.

 

2. 引述問卷或度量法中的項目

 

在實證研究論文裡,若需要在研究方法的章節裡描述特定的研究工具或度量法時,提供個別事項作為參考範例是有益的。請注意,從問卷中引述項目時,不必附上頁數。

 

“The College Self-Efficacy Inventory (CSEI). This inventory measures college students’ confidence in their ability to complete specific college-related tasks. […] Sample items for which students are asked to rate their confidence include ‘Make new friends at college’ and ‘Ask a question in class.’”

 

Reynolds, A.L. & Weigand, M.J. (2010). The relationships among academic attitudes, psychological attitudes, and the first-semester academic achievement of first-year college students. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47, 173-193.

 

3. 以歷史性或政治性的引文作為文章的開頭

 

有時,引述歷史或政治人物的話有助於架構出文章的核心議題;通常,跟初次發表的研究論文相比,直接引述歷史或政治人物的話的情形較常出現在評論性文章和書籍的章節中。

 

“Sigmund Freud conceived the first model of the ideal therapist stance, likening the therapist to a blank screen. ‘The therapist should be opaque to his patients and, like a mirror, should show them nothing but what is shown to him’ (Freud 1912/1958, p. 118).”

 

Henretty, J.R. & Levitt, H.M. (2010). The role of therapist self-disclosure in psychotherapy: A qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 63-77.

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

  1. 如何在論文中透過「三明治引用法 Quotation Sandwich」正確地引用文獻?
  2. 在傑出的論文中,引文的正確使用方式
  3. 找不到與我的研究相關參考文獻怎麼辦?
  4. 透過三步驟來瞭解並連結自己對文獻回顧的貢獻
評論技巧:如何客觀的、有條理的撰寫論文評論(第一部分:注意事項、給作者的評論)
如何寫出非專業學術科學文章來吸引大眾讀者的目光:標題、暗示、問題、結尾 (下)

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