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英文文法情態動詞:Would、Could、Might、May、Should等分別與正確用法

作者: Steve Wallace


發布日期: 2017 / 8 / 23,

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英文文法情態動詞:Would、Could、Might、May、Should等分別與正確用法

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本周文章要討論的主題為情態動詞的使用規則,以及如何在不同情境之下運用這類動詞。

 

情態動詞是一種用來表達情態的助動詞,因此又名為情態助動詞

 

具體來說,情態動詞是用來表示可能性、能力、意願、義務的一種動詞,其最主要目的為說明後方承接的主要動詞具有什麼樣的功能,和一般動詞的使用有許多不同之處,例句如下:

 

  1. 情態動詞的第三人稱不加s。

 

例句:

 

He can speak Chinese.

She should be here by 9:00.

 

  1. 無論是現在簡單式或是過去簡單式,皆使用not來表達否定語氣。

 

例句:

 

He should not be late.

They might not come to the party.

 

  1. 情態動詞不能以過去式或未來式的形式表達。

 

錯誤:He will can go with us.

錯誤:She musted study very hard.

 

關於情態動詞的使用

 

情態動詞表達的情態類型如下:

 

  1. 可能性
  2. 能力
  3. 義務
  4. 建議
  5. 許可
  6. 習慣

 

所有情態動詞的種類如下:

 

Can, could, may, might, will, would, must, shall, should, ought to

 

切記:情態動詞的後方會承接不定詞,但一般不使用to

 

例句:

 

You must stop when the traffic lights turn red.

You should see the doctor.

There are a lot of tomatoes in the fridge. You need not buy any.

 

例外:

 

You ought to go to the doctor.

 

  1. 可能性

 

首先,情態動詞可用於表達某件事情在過去/現在/未來發生的確定程度。

 

例句:

 

It’s snowing, so it must be very cold outside.

I don’t know where John is. He could have missed the train.

This bill can’t be right. £200 for two cups of coffee!

 

  1. 能力

 

談到技術或能力時,會使用can或could。

 

例句:

 

She can speak six languages.

My grandfather could play golf very well.

I can’t drive.

 

  1. 義務與建議

 

若要表達某件事情有無必要,或是給予建議,可使用must或should一類的情態動詞。

 

例句:

 

Children must do their homework.

We haveto wear a uniform at work.

You should stop smoking.

 

  1. 許可

 

若要徵詢或給予同意,可使用can、could、may一類的情態動詞。此外,情態動詞也可以用來表達「禁止做某件事」的概念。

 

例句:

 

Could I leave early today, please?

You may not use the car tonight.

Can we swim in the lake?

 

  1. 習慣

 

若談到平常或過去的習慣或行事做法,可使用will或would來表達。

 

例句:

 

When I lived in Italy, we would often eat in the restaurant next to my flat.

John will always be late!

 

情態動詞一覽表:

情態動詞 解釋 表達的情態類型 例句

must

to have to 100% obligation I must stop when the traffic lights turn red.
to be very probable logical conclusion (deduction) He must be very tired after such enormous work.

must not

not to be allowed to prohibition You must not smoke in the hospital.

can

to be able to ability I can swim.
to be allowed to permission Can I use your phone please?
it is possible possibility Smoking can cause cancer!

could

to be able to ability in the past When I was younger I could stay up all night and not get tired.
to be allowed to more polite permission Excuse me, could I just say something?
it is possible possibility It could rain tomorrow!

may

to be allowed to permission May I use your phone please?
it is possible, probable possibility, probability It may rain tomorrow!

might

to be allowed to more polite permission Might I use your phone please?
it is possible, probable weak possibility, probability I might come and visit you in America next year, if I can save enough money.

need

necessary necessity Need I say more?

need not

not necessary lack of necessity/absence of obligation I need not buy any tomatoes. There are plenty in the fridge.

should/ought to

used to say or ask what is the correct or best thing to do 50% obligation I should/ought to see a doctor. I have a terrible headache.
to suggest an action or to show that it is necessary advice You should / ought to revise your lessons.
to be very probable logical conclusion (deduction) He should / ought to be very tired after such enormous work.

had better

to suggest an action or to show that it is necessary advice You’d better revise your lessons.

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

  1. 如何確認主詞動詞單複數一致性?
  2. 研究論文中常見的兩個文法問題:單複數動詞、一般代名詞與關係代名詞
  3. 學術論文寫作中使用「as」、「because」或「since」用法
  4. 解析可數與不可數名詞的正確用法: 論文可以使用literatures或informations這類的字眼嗎?
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