Academic motivation has been identified as an important variable when examining first-year student success; however, results of previous research are inconsistent (Allen, 1999; French & Oakes, 2003). While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Grabiel (1995) found that “student motivation and persistence were significantly correlated,” (p. 18) Allen (1999) reported that “student motivation and persistence were positively correlated only for the subset of first-year students of color” (p. 477).
(a) Academic motivation has been identified as an important variable when examining first-year student success; however, results of previous research are inconsistent (Allen, 1999; French & Oakes, 2003). While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Grabiel (1995) found a significant positive correlation between student motivation and persistence, Allen (1999) found that the positive relationship only existed for students of color.
(b) While Prus, Hatcher, Hope, and Gabriel (1995) found that greater student motivation predicted greater persistence, Allen (1999) replicated this relationship only among students of color.
From Brewin’s (2014) recent theory paper discussing different types of memory related to posttraumatic stress disorder:
Sensory memory or iconic memory is defined by Long (1980) as “a persistence effect in the form of a rapidly decaying image or icon following the termination of a brief stimulus” (p. 787).
The term sensory memory, or iconic memory, generally refers to a short-term memory store that briefly retains sensory traces. According to Long (1980), these traces exist as an image that quickly disappears after some type of brief visual stimulus is presented.
Bert and Ernie (2014) found that bullying behavior [variable name], operationalized as the frequency of verbal taunts occurring during recess [operational definition], positively predicted future incarceration.
“A focus of interest for those studying emotion and memory has been the level of recall for the circumstances in which individuals learned of shocking events such as the assassination of a prominent public figure. These were termed flashbulb memories (R. Brown & Kulik, 1977), because they possessed ‘a primary, live quality that is almost perceptual. Indeed, [a flashbulb memory] is very like a photograph that indiscriminately preserves the scene in which each of us found himself when the flashbulb was fired’ (p. 74). This account of flashbulb memory followed an existing notion…”
Brewin, C.R. (2014). Episodic memory, perceptual memory, and their interaction: Foundations for a theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 69-97.
“The College Self-Efficacy Inventory (CSEI). This inventory measures college students’ confidence in their ability to complete specific college-related tasks. […] Sample items for which students are asked to rate their confidence include ‘Make new friends at college’ and ‘Ask a question in class.’”
Reynolds, A.L. & Weigand, M.J. (2010). The relationships among academic attitudes, psychological attitudes, and the first-semester academic achievement of first-year college students. Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice, 47, 173-193.
“Sigmund Freud conceived the first model of the ideal therapist stance, likening the therapist to a blank screen. ‘The therapist should be opaque to his patients and, like a mirror, should show them nothing but what is shown to him’ (Freud 1912/1958, p. 118).”
Henretty, J.R. & Levitt, H.M. (2010). The role of therapist self-disclosure in psychotherapy: A qualitative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 63-77.