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英文文法中,正確的使用介係詞:At、By、For、From、On

by Steve Wallace


Posted on 2014 / 8 / 1,

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英文文法中,正確的使用介係詞:At、By、For、From、On

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提問:「我常常搞混介系詞。可以請您談談介系詞在不同情況下的運用嗎?」

一位博士生以email提出的問題(就讀大學未知)

 

回答:

 

在英文詞類中,介系詞的功用是幫助作者將概念、人物、地方及事情設在一地點、時間或空間中。

 

常見的介系詞包括:at、by、for、from、under、without、with、to、while、during、on

 

介系詞的出現通常意味著一個片語的開始,而片語可為句子的主詞及動詞添加意思。因此,若要引導讀者理解介系詞片語的含意,選擇正確的介系詞十分重要。

 

在下列名詞後使用for

 

  • A check for (amount of money): She gave me a check for $50.
  • A demand for something: There wasn’t enough demand for the product.
  • A need for something: In the class, a real need for discipline is evident.
  • A reason for doing something: I have a reason for doing that.

 

在下列名詞後使用in

 

  • A rise in something: A rise in prices has occurred.
  • A fall in something: A fall in prices affected the employees.
  • A decrease in something: We have seen decreases in production levels.

 

在下列名詞後使用of

 

  • A cause of something: She is the cause of all his problems.
  • A photograph or a picture of something or someone: He took a picture of the girl.

 

在下列名詞後使用to

 

  • The damage to something: I did a lot of damage to my car.
  • An invitation to an activity: We were invited to their wedding.
  • A reaction to something: Her reaction to his behavior was funny.
  • A solution to a problem: He provided the solution to our issue.
  • An attitude to something: Your attitude to your problems is lousy.

 

在下列名詞後使用with

 

  • A relationship with someone or something: The relationship with my dog is fun.
  • A connection with someone or something: His connection with the city is limited.
  • A contact with someone or something: Have you had contact with Sarah?

 

在下列名詞後使用between

 

  • A connection between two things: There is no connection between the two ideas.
  • A relationship between two things: The relationship between the two is strong.
  • A contact between two things: There is little contact between the two parents.
  • A difference between two things: There is no difference between those two colors.

使用適當的介系詞

 

每個介系詞對於開啟下一個片語都有其特定意義。了解這些特定用法有助於寫作者幫助讀者理解文章內容。

 

IN

用於空間

  • In a garden
  • In a room

 

用於水體、水域

  • In the sea
  • In a river

 

用於線條

  • In a row
  • In a queue

 

用於靜態(非動作性)動詞及城市、國家、州等

  • Stay in Taiwan
  • Work in Taipei

 

用於月、年、一段時間

  • In April
  • In 2014

 

用於未來的一段時間

  • In a few weeks
  • In a few hours

 

AT

用於地點

  • At the bus-stop
  • At the door

 

用於頁面上的位置

  • At the top
  • At the bottom

 

用於人群

  • At the back of the class
  • At the front of class

 

用於靜態(非動作)動詞及地點

  • At the cinema
  • At work

 

用於精確時間

  • At 10:30
  • At two pm

 

ON

用於表面

  • On the table
  • On the desk

 

用於小島

  • On Maui
  • On Green Island

 

用於方向

  • On the left
  • One the right

 

用於週間日期

  • On Monday
  • On Tuesday

 

用於日曆上特定日期

  • On Halloween
  • On October 29th

 

TO

用於go、come、drive等動作動詞

  • Go to work
  • Drive to Las Vegas

 

FOR

用於表示一段時間

  • For three weeks
  • For many months

 

WHILE

與動詞形態一起使用

  • While I was watching TV
  • While I lived in New York

 

DURING

與名詞一起使用以表示某事之發生

  • During class
  • During my vacation

 

注意事項 :

 

  1. 房間的角落為「in the corner of a room」,街道的角落為「at the corner of a street」。
  2. 建築物的前方以「in the front of buildings」表達,後方以「at the back of buildings」表達。
  3. 一張紙的正面以「on the front of a piece of paper」表達,背面以「on the back of a piece of paper」表達。

 

介系詞片語參考

 

AT BY FOR FROM UNDER WITHOUT
At first By accident For now From now on Under age Without fail
At least By far For instance From then on Under control Without notice
At most By all means For example From bad to worse Under the impression Without exception
At times By heart For sale From my point of view Under guarantee Without someone’s consent
At any rate By chance For a while From what I understand Under the influence of Without success
At last By and by For the moment From personal experience Under obligation Without warning
At the latest By the way For ages Under suspicion
At once By the time For a change Under his thumb
At short notice By no means For better or worse Under discussion
At an advantage By name Under consideration
At a disadvantage By sight
At risk By now
At a profit By then
At a loss

 

本篇文章改編自美國中北大學寫作中心(North Central University Writing Center)的〈修改草稿風格〉(Revising the Draft for Style)一節。

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

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