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如何依照期刊規定使用 based on 與 on the basis of

by Steve Wallace

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Posted on 2015 / 1 / 22,

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如何依照期刊規定使用 based on 與 on the basis of

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片語 based on 和 on the basis of 經常被交互使用,然而,這是不正確的。因為 based on 是分詞(口語形容詞),用來定義名詞、代名詞和名詞片語而非動詞,on the basis of 才是用來定義動詞的介詞片語。

 

當 based on用作被動態時,具有動詞或形容詞的功用,可修飾名詞或代名詞(通常緊接在片語前)。

 

例句:

 

This conclusion is based on four years of experience.

Conclusions based on experience may still require testing.

 

若要修飾動詞,請使用其他的片語,如 on the basis of。

 

1.

錯誤:

 

Based on
the first four years of results, we discarded the original hypothesis.

 

正確:

 

On the basis of
our results, we discarded the original hypothesis.

 

2.

錯誤:

 

The administration sent a document on the basis of your suggestion.

 

正確:

 

The administration sent a document based on your suggestion.

 

在例句二的正確寫法中,based on 被用來形容與該片語最近的名詞 a document,讀者進而能夠了解,句中的「你」和該文件有關。而使用 on the basis of 來形容動詞 to send 則說明了,是「你」提出寄送文件的主意。

 

簡單來說,當要表達 according to(根據)的時候,我們可以使用 on the basis of,而當想表達 has a foundation in/has resulted from(基於/由於)的意思時,使用 based on。

 

例句:

 

On the basis of the data obtained from randomized controlled trials, cognitive–behavioral therapy is the preferred treatment and is based on changing the emotional and psychological associations with sleeping that interfere with proper sleep.

 

被動式動詞後的based on

 

例句:

 

The experiments were designed based on our previous results.

 

此例句的作者或許希望以分詞 based on 來形容動詞,但卻無法如願,因為 based on 只能修飾與其最接近的名詞(experiments);但是,實驗的根據是來自過去的研究結果嗎?

 

如果您希望強調實驗的設計(即動詞),便需使用介詞片語 on the basis of:

 

The experiments were designed on the basis of our previous results.

 

然而,如果您想要強調實驗且希望保留片語 based on,便需加入名詞讓它來定義。在此,與原先動詞相關的名詞 design 是最適合的:

 

The design of the experiments was based on our previous results.

The experimental design was based on our previous results.

 

不正確的相關字

 

Based on 時常用於引介名詞,但在正式的句法中,based on 卻不宜與名詞相連。也就是說,這會形成懸吊分詞的例子。

 

例句:

 

Based on the MALDI–TOF results, testicular proteins were given a unified nomenclature.

 

位置上最接近且可被分詞補充的名詞為 testicular proteins(睪丸蛋白)。然而,此句型卻傳遞了錯誤的訊息:MALDI–TOF的結果是睪丸蛋白的根據;實際上,此句要說明的是,睪丸蛋白的命名依據來自於這些結果。這是個很容易改正的錯誤,改用介詞片語來定義動詞即可:

 

On the basis of the MALDI–TOF results, testicular proteins were given a unified nomenclature.

 

例句:

 

Based on these criteria, the abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

 

此句中,based on 補充了說明最靠近的名詞 abstract,但卻誤將句意傳達為:這些準則是摘要的根基。實際上,這些準則是用來幫摘要排名的工具。使用可定義動詞的介詞片語即可修正此情形:

 

On the basis of these criteria, the abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

 

若要以較簡短的方法傳達相同的意思,可捨棄介詞片語,直接使用介詞:

 

From these criteria, abstracts should be ranked for their eligibility for the poster session.

 

例句

 

Based on the results, we concluded that the drugs are equally effective.

 

這些研究結果是什麼的根基?隱含主詞:conclusion;語法主詞:we。

 

修正

 

1On the basis of the results, we concluded that the drugs are equally effective.

 

修正

 

2:We concluded from the results that the drugs are equally effective.

 

修正

 

3Based on the results, our conclusion is that the drugs are equally effective.

 

Based on 與 on the basis of 的差異對學術期刊來說重要嗎?以下是來自學術寫作格式規範以及期刊的例子。

 

ACS格式

 

片語 based on 僅用於修飾名詞而非動詞。用於句首或修飾動詞時請改用 on the basis of。例如:請用 the results based on Smith’s theory . . . 而非 Based on Smith’s theory, we found . . . 。

 

Conservation Biology

 

作者投稿須知

 

請將 based on 當作動詞使用。作為副詞時,請使用 on the basis of。

 

動詞形式:We based identification of reserves on the number of species in each unit.

 

錯誤:We identified reserves based on the number of species in each unit.

 

副詞形式:The solutions were compared on the basis of financial constraints.

 

錯誤:The solutions were compared based on financial constraints.


http://www.wiley.com/legacy/wileyblackwell/images/alltherules_7_VII_2009_2_2.pdf

美國農藝學會(American Society of Agronomy)出版與格式手冊(Publications Handbook and Style Manual)

 

Based on 在被動形式時,具有動詞(We based our conclusions on four years of experience)或形容詞的功用,可修飾名詞或代名詞(通常緊接在片語前)。

 

This conclusion is based on four years of experience.

Conclusions based on experience may still require testing.

 

修飾動詞時,請使用其他的片語結構,如 on the basis of。

 

錯誤:Based on the first four years of results, we discarded the original hypothesis.

 

正確:On the basis of our results, we discarded the original hypothesis.

 

https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/files/publications/style/chapter-02.pdf

Journal of Participatory Medicine

 

意思為 according to(根據)時,請使用 on the basis of;當意思為 has a foundation in/has resulted from(基於/由於)時,請使用 based on。

 

On the basis of data from randomized controlled trials, cognitive-behavioral therapy is the preferred treatment and is based on changing the emotional and psychological associations with sleeping that interfere with proper sleep.

 

http://www.jopm.org/styleguide/

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

  1. 學術論文寫作中使用「as」、「because」或「since」用法
  2. 如何正確使用these、they與each other?
  3. 如何在句子中正確使用such as和including?
  4. 如何分辨optimum/optimal、minimal/minimum 與exclude/except?
  5. Because of 與 Due to有什麼不同?
  6. Critique、Evaluate、Criticize、Justify、Elaborate及相關單字的差異性為何?
  7. 近義字的區別:also、too、likewise、besides、 moreover和furthermore
化學研究論文中常見的十個錯誤
期刊編輯想要什麼? 期刊投稿準則:「應該」與「不該」做的事

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