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避免句子以動詞結尾

by Steve Wallace

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Posted on 2020 / 4 / 23,

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避免句子以動詞結尾

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避免以動詞結尾

 

用動詞結尾的子句或句子讀起來頭重腳輕,很不平衡。好的句子結構盡量讓動詞靠近主詞,避免在句尾使用動詞。母語人士認為必須在動詞後面加上名詞片語,例如a swim或副詞,來營造一個感覺比較平衡的句子。

 

常見錯誤:

 

The children are swimming.

 

編修後:

 

The children are taking a swim.

 

  • 提供您一個常用的技巧,可避免在句尾使用動詞,那就是在子句「scientists originally believed」中,加上「by」來顛倒主詞與動詞的順序,請見以下範例。

 

常見錯誤:

 

The West Antarctic Ice Sheet probably contained less ice than scientists had originally believed.

 

編修後:

 

The West Antarctic Ice Sheet probably contained less ice than originally believed by scientists.

 

  • 常常簡單的在句尾動詞後面加上一些訊息,就可以讓句子變得平衡。下面這些句子中,您認為如何修改較好呢?

 

常見錯誤:

 

Doubling the sampling density can be accomplished.

 

The parameters for Inmarsat GEO satellite network were used.

 

A miniaturized planar inverted-F antenna is proposed.

 

Several experiments were performed.

 

研究論文的材料與方法章節中,常常包含執行程序的手段以及採取某些方法的理由或目的,請參考編修後的句型例子。

 

編修後:

 

Doubling the sampling density can be accomplished by interpolation.

 

The parameters for Inmarsat GEO satellite network were used, since the effect of call drops is significant when working under a long delay network.

 

A miniaturized planar inverted-F antenna is proposed for dual-band mobile phone application in the 900-and 1900-MHz bands.

 

Several experiments were performed to optimize the temperature and the tool pressure.

 

  • 也可以藉由刪減關係子句,避免使用動詞做結尾。

 

常見錯誤:

 

Java is now the programming language WHICH developers in North America USE most.

 

編修後:

 

Java is now the programming language USED most BY developers in North America.

 

  • 避免句尾或子句末端使用介係詞

 

在英文口語中,母語人士常常在句尾或片語尾端使用介係詞,但正式書寫英文中,常使用兩個方式來避免這個情況。

 

常見錯誤:

 

Each species and genus of plants produces pollen grains that have a distinct shape. These shapes can be used to identify the type of plant that they came from.

 

編修後:

 

Each species and genus of plants produces pollen grains that have a distinct shape. These shapes can be used to identify the type of plant from which they came.

 

  • 改變單字

 

如果子句或句子結尾是包含介係詞的片語動詞,則可以用比較正式的、拉丁文組成的動詞來取代。

 

常見錯誤:

 

In wireless networks, signal fading that comes up from multipath propagation is a particularly severe channel impairment that can be easily got around.

 

編修後:

 

In wireless networks, signal fading that arises from multipath propagation is a particularly severe channel impairment that can be easily mitigated.

 

許多最常見的英語動詞可以被更精準的拉丁文組成的動詞取代,這些常見的盎格魯撒克遜動詞(Anglo-Saxon verbs)可以有很多的意思。

 

  • 「Be」搭配不同動詞,或單獨出現,可能有以下意思:

 

be situated, be located, be placed, be positioned; be outlined, be listed, be described; serve as

 

  • 「Do」單獨出現在句子中,依據不同上下文也可能有以下意思:

 

perform, implement, execute, complete, conduct, function, operate

 

  • 「Get」這個字也可以有以下意思:

 

become, acquire, procure, receive, gain, obtain, achieve, attain

 

  • 「Give」放在句中可能有以下用意:

 

provide, offer, supply, transfer, yield; allow, permit, enable; contribute

 

  • 「Go」放在正式用法中也會有以下意思:

 

proceed, pass, process, transfer, transmit

 

  • 「Be going to」用來表示未來式,等同於:will

 

  • 「Happen」也等於occur

 

  • 「Have」也有以下廣泛的意思:

 

possess, include, incorporate, contain, involve, consist of, be composed of, comprise

 

  • 「Have to」表達應該或強制,可能等同以下:

 

should, must, need to

 

  • 「Make」也是個很好用、廣泛的單字,在正式上下文中可能有以下意思:

 

produce, generate, create, assemble, build, construct, erect, fabricate, fashion, forge, form, frame, manufacture, mold

 

  • 「Mean」可以具有以下意思:

 

denote, indicate, imply, suggest, signify

 

  • 「Put」放在前後文中,可能有以下不同意思:

 

place, attach, insert, apply, connect, join, link, unite; adhere, anchor, secure, implant, imbed

 

  • 介係詞 + which

 

另一個方法是直接把介係詞挪到關係代名詞which的正前方。

 

常見錯誤:

 

A non-falsifiable theory is a hypothesis that no test can be devised for.

 

編修後:

 

A non-falsifiable theory is a hypothesis for which no test can be devised.

 

常見錯誤:

 

Greenhouse gases could change the weather patterns that most of the world’s population depend on for their day to day survival.

 

編修後:

 

Greenhouse gases could change the weather patterns on which most of the world’s population depend for their day to day survival.

 

  • 避免使用片語動詞

 

多數片語動詞是由少數常見的動詞,例如get、go、come、put、do、take、make和set,和少數副詞或介係詞,例如away、out、off、up和in組成。然而,書面學術風格總是偏好一個單字的拉丁動詞。這是從非正式到正式英文最顯著的改變。

 

一般動詞片語組:

 

The aim of this study is to look at the growth dynamics and to find out the microbial populations living in the C140 prototype hydraulic system.

 

拉丁動詞片語組:

 

The aim of this study is to examine the growth dynamics and to determine the microbial populations living in the C140 prototype hydraulic system.

 

一般動詞片語組:ring up

 

正式動詞組:raise, present

 

一般動詞片語組:build up

 

正式動詞組:accumulate

 

一般動詞片語組:come up with

 

正式動詞組:devise, invent, develop; produce, supply

 

一般動詞片語組:do away with

 

正式動詞組:eliminate, obviate

 

一般動詞片語組:find out

 

正式動詞組:determine, develop; detect, observe;

 

一般動詞片語組:get rid of

 

正式動詞組:eliminate

 

一般動詞片語組:go down/up

 

正式動詞組:decrease, decline, diminish / increase, rise, augment

 

一般動詞片語組:take care of

 

正式動詞組:manage, operate

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

  1. 在研究 (study)與論文 (research paper) 中,應該搭配那些描述性動詞?
  2. 哪些句型適用於定義研究論文中的專有名詞?
  3. 如何正確使用垂懸與錯置修飾語
  4. 學術寫作避免濫用開頭為it is、there is或 there are的句子
當被邀約為書或期刊寫文的時候,該如何有技巧地回答?
善用良好的句型結構陳述與研究預期不符的結果

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