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英文逗號引介的用法

作者: Steve Wallace


發布日期: 2022 / 11 / 14,

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英文逗號引介的用法

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逗號除了用來表示句子中的分隔以外,學術寫作中更常用來引用與介紹下一部分的說明,本篇週電子報為您介紹逗號中引介的用法。

 

  • 規則:在獨立子句之前的片語或子句後面要加上逗號。

 

  1. 從屬子句(dependent clause):包含一個主詞及一個動詞,但句意不夠完整。
  2. 獨立子句(independent clause):包含一個主詞及一個動詞,單獨存在的句意完整。
  3. 片語(phrase):包含主詞或動詞其中之一。

 

引介的類型及範例:

 

  1. 以單一字彙作整句修飾單一個字可以修飾整個子句的意思。

 

    • Surprisingly, the roof was still intact. (令人驚訝的是,屋頂仍然完整。)

 

此句中,Surprisingly修飾整個獨立子句「the roof was still intact」。

 

  1. 從屬子句:以從屬連接詞開頭(如after、although、as、when、while、until、unless、before、because、if、since等字),且未傳達完整句意。

 

    • If they want to do well on the test, students must spend time studying.(如果他們想要考試考得好,學生們必須花時間讀書。)

 

「If they want to do well on the test」包含主詞(they)和動詞(want),這並不是一份完整的句意,僅是表示一種「條件」。

 

  1. 不定詞片語:以動詞的不定詞形式開頭(to+原形動詞)。

 

    • To stay in shape for competition, athletes must exercise every day.(為了保持能競賽的良好體能,運動員必須每日運動。)

 

此句以to+動詞(stay)開頭,不包含主詞,在整個不定詞片語之後、主要子句前加逗號,所以這裡的主要子句是「athletes must exercise every day」。

 

注意以不定詞作為主詞的句子「To start a new business without doing market research and long-term planning in advance[x] would be foolish.」此句無逗號,因為該句不是引介片語,這裡的to+原型動詞引導的是一個完整子句當做主詞,後面需使用單數動詞。

 

  1. 分詞片語:以過去或現在分詞開頭。

 

    • Throwing caution to the wind, she told him she loved him.(她豁出去了,告訴他她愛他。)

 

以現在分詞開頭(throwing),逗號於整段分詞片語後加上,後面跟著主要子句「she told him she loved him」。

 

注意不要將分詞構句與動名詞混為一談,「Singing and dancing at the same time is hard to do.」此句無逗號,因為singing和dancing不是作為形容詞使用,而是當名詞用,作為此句的主詞,這是動名詞的用法。

 

  1. 介系詞片語:以介系詞開頭。

 

    • Over the Christmas holiday, I cleaned out my attic.(在耶誕節假期,我清理了我的閣樓。)

 

以介系詞開頭(over),逗號在介系詞片語之後,後面跟著主要子句「I cleaned out my attic」。

 

  1. 獨立片語:有一個名詞和修飾語,通常包括一個分詞,但並非絕對。

 

    • Their tummies satisfied, they crawled into bed.(肚子飽足後,他們爬上床。)

 

Their tummies(名詞)satisfied (分詞),在整個獨立子句之後加逗號,後面跟著主要子句「they crawled into bed」。

 

練習:

 

放進逗號,如果可以說出是什麼類型的引介就更好了。

 

  1. Although we had reviewed the film twice before we never noticed these details about the shooting.
  2. To get everything done I had to start earlier than usual.
  3. Fortunately I was there to catch him.
  4. By evening we had become impatient.
  5. On the other hand I do agree it could use some work.
  6. Dancing to the music I forgot all of my troubles.
  7. When he says he will do it he means it.
  8. Dancing around the room to my favorite song always makes me feel better.
  9. Teeth clenched, eyes closed she braved the tall slide.
  10. To be the best was all he could think about.

 

解答:

 

  1. Although we had reviewed the film twice before, we never noticed these details about the shooting.(引介類型:從屬子句)
  2. To get everything done, I had to start earlier than usual.(引介類型:不定片語)
  3. Fortunately, I was there to catch him.(引介類型:單純副詞之後放入一個逗號)
  4. By evening(,) we had become impatient.(可將逗號置於by evening之後,但是非必要,因為這是短介系詞片語)
  5. On the other hand, I do agree it could use some work.(引介類型:介系詞片語)
  6. Dancing to the music, I forgot all of my troubles.(引介類型:分詞片語)
  7. When he says he will do it, he means it.(引介類型:從屬子句)
  8. Dancing around the room to my favorite song always makes me feel better.(無逗號,因為dancing around the room to my favorite song是句子的主詞)
  9. Teeth clenched, eyes closed, she braved the tall slide.(引介類型:獨立子句)
  10. To be the best was all he could think about.(無逗號,因為to be the best是句子的主詞)
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