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什麼是長破折號(Em Dash)

作者: Steve Wallace


發布日期: 2022 / 11 / 14,

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什麼是長破折號(Em Dash)

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長破折號(—)比連字號(-)與短破折號(–)長。

 

要打出長破折號,您需要按ALT 0151,如果這個快捷按法無效,您也可以用打字方式產出長破折號,按兩個連字號後面不加空白直接打任意字,例如: “see,” 兩個連字號 “this”,您會得到 see—this。

 

如果您想要在長破折號的兩邊加空白,回過頭去插入即可。

 

長破折號是文學格式符號,不需要用到它也可以符合正確的標點符號用法,長破折號只是反映個人選擇的符號。我只想得到一個長破折號的「必要」用途,此用途「規則」標示出來,其餘的則是「選擇」。

 

不過,確保不要過度使用長破折號,不然效果會大減。

 

當您可以用長破折號時:

 

規則:用於指示遭到某人或講者自身打斷的談話

 

  • “You just haven’t been listening. I told you—”“No, you aren’t listening to me.”
  • “Why did she—oh never mind, it doesn’t matter.”

 

選擇:用於對話中途的動作頓點

 

  • “Wait! I need”—Mark looked down and cleared his throat—“um, well, here, you forgot this.”

 

註:使用逗號代替長破折號是不正確的,然而,可以將之分成兩句:“Wait! I need . . .” Mark looked down and cleared his throat. “Um, well, here, you forgot this.”

 

選擇:使用長破折號,而不是逗號或括號,是為了將更多重點放在框起來的資訊。

 

  • My son is now a scholar—nearly in the 90 percentile—so you wouldn’t know by looking at him that he used to be failure to thrive.

 

註:一般經驗法則,括號的用途更像是補充、澄清或對句中主題的評論,而逗號用於該資訊是句子自然流暢行文的一部分,不需要加以強調。長破折號將更多重點放在框起來的資訊,使其更為顯眼。

 

選擇:用於分隔已經包含逗號的修飾片語

 

  • If you need to get a hold of me quickly, try email first—my work email, not my personal one—and I’m more likely to see it sooner than a text.

 

註:這句可以因為我想要強調其中的內容而加上破折號,合情合理,畢竟強調是哪個帳號很重要。然而,在這種結構中,作者可選用破折號,不是因為想要強調框起來的元素,而是因為句中包含數個逗號,因此,破折號避免了過度頻繁使用的逗號,增進句子可讀性。

 

選擇:使用長破折號,而不是冒號(見部落格1 部落格2,明白何時可以使用冒號)。

 

  • Many jobs interest meteaching, editing, public speaking, and tutoring.
  • There was a clear reason for a drop in attendance at NBA games this seasonthere was no superstar to take the place of Michael Jordan.

 

註:通常在做使用破折號而非冒號的考量時,是因為想更加強調長破折號框起來的部分。

 

練習:

 

長破折號不是必要的,不過為了練習,在合理的地方放進長破折號。下面有一句是我覺得放入長破折號反而有錯的句子,看看您是否能找出來。

 

  1. “Yes, I think we . . . Xiao Ming, don’t touch that. Sorry I need to go get my son.”
  2. Most of my family members, my brother, his wife, my sister, her husband, and my mom, came with us.
  3. Mark Alma Lunduqist, born in 1978, became the head doctor.
  4. Save the Cat is one of the few books, actually, the only book, you’ll ever need on craft.
  5. I bought several clothing items, all of which were on sale, since I have changed size.
  6. “Don’t you think.” Chen rubbed his eyes. “I mean, it’s what I would do.”
  7. Chang has one golden rule for dealing with money: “Never a borrower nor a lender be.”
  8. “Why do you think . . .” “Shhh. Don’t talk!”

 

解答:

 

  1. “Yes, I think weXiao Ming, don’t touch that. Sorry I need to go get my son.”(長破折號是正確的選擇,因為講者還沒說完,他們只是打斷了自己的話)
  2. Most of my family membersmy brother, his wife, my sister, her husband, and my momcame with us.(因為框起來的元素包含逗號,長破折號有助增進可讀性)
  3. Mark Alma Lunduqist, born in 1978, became the head doctor.(不要加長破折號,事實上,我會把這個資訊放進括號,而非逗號之間,因為這是一個補充資訊,不需要強調)
  4. Save the Cat is one of the few booksactually, the only bookyou’ll ever need on craft.(框起來的元素很重要,作者可選擇用長破折號強調它,其中還包含一個逗號,但也只有一個,所以如果沒有強調的必要,我個人不會用長破折號)
  5. I bought several clothing itemsall of which were on salesince I have changed size.(如果跟配偶對話者很擔憂花掉的錢,對此加以強調是合理的)
  6. “Don’t you thinkChen rubbed his eyesI mean, it’s what I would do.”
  7. Chang has one golden rule for dealing with money“Never a borrower nor a lender be.”
  8. “Why do you think” “Shhh. Don’t talk!”(說話者的話被打斷,而非正常說完,因此長破折號是正確的選擇)
英文寫作中的More Detail vs More Details
英文句子清晰度:名詞化與主詞位置
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