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超實用的學術寫作轉折用語

2017 / 10 / 30

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問題:

「我在撰寫論文時,有時找不到適合用來承接下一章或下一主題的英文句子,請問是否能提供一些實用的學術寫作轉折用語?」

–華樂絲收到的電子郵件提問(發信人未註明所屬學校)

 

回答:

在撰寫研究或學位論文時,向讀者預告下一段落的內容就如同交給駕駛一張地圖:對方看了便明白接下來的方向。因此,承上啟下的段落在論文中的作用便是一張給讀者的「領航地圖」,這張地圖必須精確無誤,同時又容易看懂。

作者也最好能夠在內文中提醒讀者,接下來準備邁入下一個主題或章節段落,這類提醒用字也就是所謂的轉折語。以下列出一些實用的轉折語和句子範例:

  • 預示章節內容

The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on X. It begins by…

(本章旨在回顧關於X的文獻。首先…)
This introductory section provides a brief overview of… It then goes on to…

(本章先針對…進行簡短回顧,接著…)
This part of the thesis discusses the findings which emerged from the statistical analysis presented in the previous chapter.

(本章將探討前一章統計分析帶來的研究發現。)
This chapter describes and discusses the methods used in this investigation. The first section… The second part moves on to describe in greater detail the…

(本章旨在說明與討論研究方法。首先…,再來進一步闡述…)
The final chapter of this dissertation is divided into two parts. The first…

(本研究的最後一章分為兩部分。第一部分…)
This chapter is divided into four main sections, each of which presents the results relating to one of the research questions.

(本章分成四小節,各節分別呈現與研究問題相關的結果。)
The structure and biological functions of Xs will be discussed in the forthcoming sections.

(下幾節將探討Xs的結構與生物學功能。)

 

  • 預告新主題或觀點

Regarding X, …(關於X…)
As regards X, …(至於X…)
In terms of X, …(在X方面…)
In the case of X …(在X的例子中…)
With regard to X, …(對於X…)
With respect to X, …(有關X…)
As far as X is concerned, …(就X而言…)

 

  • 提及前述主題

As discussed above, …(如上所述…)
As explained earlier, …(如前所述…)
As described on the previous page, …(如上一頁所述…)
As was mentioned in the previous chapter, …(如上一章所述…)
As explained in the introduction, it is clear that…(如本文前言所述,顯然…)
As was pointed out in the introduction to this paper, …(如本文前言所說…)
Returning briefly to the subject/issue of X, …(簡短回顧關於X的主題/議題…)

 

  • 承接下一段落

Turning now to the experimental evidence on…

(接下來探討關於… 的實驗證明)
Before proceeding to examine X, it will be necessary to…

(進一步檢視X以前,必須要先…)
Before employing these theories to examine X, it is necessary to…

(使用這些理論來檢視X以前,必須要先…)
So far this paper/chapter has focused on X. The following section will discuss…

(目前本文/本章著重探討X。下一章將討論…)
Having defined what is meant by X, I will now move on to discuss…

(說明X的定義後,將下來討論…)
This chapter follows on from the previous chapter, which examined/laid out/outlined X.

(本章接續上一章的主題,繼續檢視/闡述/敘述X。)
This chapter has demonstrated that… It is now necessary to explain the course of…

(本章已證明…。以下將說明…)

Having discussed how to construct X, the final section of this paper addresses ways of…

(討論完如何建構X後,最後一節將闡釋如何…)
This section has analyzed the causes of X and has argued that… The next part of this paper…

(本節已分析造成X的因素,並 主張…。下一節將…)

 

  • 承接下一段落,同時加入新資訊、提出對照或表示反面意見

In addition, it is important to ask…

(此外,務必要詢問…)
On the other hand, in spite of much new knowledge about the role of…,

(另一方面,儘管有許多關於…的新知識,)
However, this system also has a number of serious drawbacks.

(然而,此系統仍存有許多嚴重缺陷。)
Despite this, little progress has been made in the…

(儘管如此,在…方面仍略有進展。)

 

  • 預告下一章節內容

The following is a brief report on a…

(以下將簡單報告…)
What follows is a description/outline/account of…

(以下將說明/闡述/介紹…)
In the section that follows, it will be argued that…

(下一節將討論…)
The problem of X is discussed in the following section.

(下一節將探討X的問題。)
The next chapter describes synthesis and evaluation of…

(下一章將說明…的整合與評估。)
This raises questions about X which will be discussed in the next chapter.

(本章有關X的問題,將於下一章進一步討論。)

 

  • 用於提出研究結果與討論的轉折語

Turning now to the experimental evidence on…

(接著談關於…的實驗證明)
Comparing the two results, it can be seen that…

(比較這兩個結果後,發現…)
A comparison of the two results reveals…

(比較這兩個結果可發現…)
As pointed out in the introduction to this paper, …

(如本文前言所述…)
From the previous discussion, it can be seen that…

(從前面的討論來看,可發現…)
It is also worth noting that X is significantly more frequent in…

(值得一提的是,X在…的頻率明顯更高。)
The differences between X and Y are highlighted in Table 4.

(表4凸顯出X與Y之間的差別。)

 

  • 重點回顧與轉折用語

This section has reviewed the three key aspects of…

(本節已回顧…的三大面向。)
This chapter has described the methods used in this investigation and it has…

(本章已描述在此研究中的方法以及…)
In this section, it has been explained that… The chapter that follows moves on to consider the…

(本節已解釋…,下一章將探討…)
This chapter began by describing X and arguing that… It went on to suggest that the… The next chapter describes the procedures and methods used in this investigation.

(本章首先描述X並強調…。接著說明…,下一章將介紹研究過程與方法。)
These analytical procedures and the results obtained from them are described in the next chapter.

(下一章將說明上述分析過程與結果。)
A summary of the main findings and of the principal issues and suggestions which have arisen in this discussion are provided in the next chapter, which…

(下一章將簡述在本節中所討論的研究主要發現、問題與建議…)
In the next section, I will present some of the findings of my empirical research on the impact of…

(下一節將探討本實證研究對於…影響的某些發現。)

 

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