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學術研究寫作中使用Served As與不對等比較(Compare and Contrast)的問題

by Steve Wallace


Posted on 2020 / 10 / 16,

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學術研究寫作中使用Served As與不對等比較(Compare and Contrast)的問題

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幾乎所有的研究寫作參考書都反對使用弱化動詞(weak verb)或將詞語名詞化。我在之前的文章裡有提過如何找出並刪除上述動詞與名詞。

 

如何避免使用弱化動詞:served as

 

原句:

 

Metallic nickel served as a catalyst for the growth of carbon nanotubes.

 

Mimi Zeiger在《Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers》建議讀者將句子中的主要動作者以動詞呈現

 

然而,上述例句中卻將主要動作者catalyst以介係詞片語as a catalyst的形式呈現。如果將served as拿掉,再把catalyst改成動詞,會變得更加直接明瞭,如下。

 

修改後:

 

Metallic nickel catalyzed the growth of carbon nanotubes.

 

以下為更多類似的例句:

 

原句:

 

An alkyne group served as an anchor for the fluorophore.

 

修改後:

 

An alkyne group anchored the fluorophore.

 

原句:

 

Interspecific hybridization served as a stimulus for the evolution of new species.

 

修改後:

 

Interspecific hybridization stimulated the evolution of new species.

 

原句:

 

Dr. Chandler served as the coordinator for the conference.

 

修改後:

 

Dr. Chandler coordinated the conference.

 

原句:

 

The whole gastrocnemius served as the sample for analysis.

 

修改後:

 

The whole gastrocnemius was analyzed.

 

以上要注意,並不是看到served as就一定要刪除,有時候其實是不能省略的,例如:

 

「The serum cholesterol level served as a biomarker for the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors」。

 

此句中的biomarker並不能動詞化為to biomark,因為英文中沒有biomark這個詞(至少現階段還沒有),所以我們不能將句子改為:

 

「The serum cholesterol level biomarked the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors」

 

不對等比較

 

不對等比較也是個需要注意的問題。

 

在使用in contrast with、compared with/to、like、unlike等片語時,被拿來比較的對象必須是同類事物。

 

原句:

 

In contrast to Figure 1, which shows the conventional process, no intermediate ion-pair is formed during the novel process shown in Figure 2.

 

此例句的詞序安排,會讓被比較的對象變成Figure 1與intermediate ion-pair。所以,務必確保把比較的另一對象緊接在in contrast to片語的後方,以下才是正確的用法。

 

修改後:

 

In contrast to the conventional process (Fig. 1), the novel process shown in Fig. 2 does not involve formation of an intermediate ion-pair.

 

同理,下方例句變成在比較surface area與不同類型的詞彙zeolites。

 

原句:

 

Compared with the parent zeolites, the surface area of the modified zeolites decreased.

 

相關文章推薦:英文論文片語中,比較和對比(Compare and Contrast)用法

 

其他幾種修正的方式如下:

 

修改後:

 

Compared with the parent zeolites, the modified zeolites showed decreased surface area.

The surface area of the modified zeolites was smaller than that of the parent zeolites.

The modified zeolites had less surface area than the parent zeolites.

 

讓我們來看看更多不對等比較的範例:

 

原句:

 

The absorbance intensities of the bands at 1200 and 980 cm–1 for the treated residue were compared with the untreated residue.

 

修改後:

 

The absorbance intensities at 1200 and 980 cm–1 for the treated residue were compared with those for the untreated residue.

 

原句:

 

In contrast to the Mycobacterium strains, PAH degradation by our isolates required the presence of an inducer.

 

修改後:

 

In contrast to the Mycobacterium strains, our isolates required an inducer for PAH degradation.

 

原句:

 

Unlike the glycopeptides isolated from the mutants, a simple mass spectrum was observed for the glycopeptides isolated from wild-type strain.

 

修改後:

 

Unlike the glycopeptides isolated from the mutants, the glycopeptides isolated from the wild-type strain showed a simple mass spectrum.

 

原句:

 

Unlike ethylene, hydrogenation of 1-butene proceeded at a moderate rate.

 

修改後:

 

Unlike ethylene, 1-butene underwent hydrogenation at a moderate rate.

Unlike hydrogenation of ethylene, hydrogenation of 1-butene proceeded at a moderate rate.

 

想了解更多關於研究寫作的動詞問題,請參考Robert A. Day, Scientific English: A Guide for Scientists and Other Professionals, 2nd ed. (Westport, CT: Oryx Press, 1995), pp. 35–36; David Lindsay, A Guide to Scientific Writing, 2nd ed. (Sydney: Longman, 1995), pp. 48–50; Maeve O’Connor, Writing Successfully in Science (London: E and FN Spon, 1999), pp. 102–103; Mimi Zeiger, Essentials of Writing Biomedical Research Papers, 2nd ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000), pp. 23–26.

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

  1. 如何使用完整的英文比較句型:Compare、than
  2. 英文文法情態動詞:Would、Could、Might、May、Should等分別與正確用法
  3. 英文近義字的區別:also、too、likewise、besides、moreover和furthermore的用法
  4. 英文optimum和optimal、minimal和minimum、exclude和except的用法
  5. 學術英文中argue、indicate和demonstrate的正確用法
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