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如何刪除冗餘及改進研究論文的語法?

by Steve Wallace

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Posted on 2020 / 4 / 10,

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如何刪除冗餘及改進研究論文的語法?

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今天我想討論我們在修改論文時,通常會做的一些重要修改。

 

  • 刪除冗餘訊息

 

學術和科學寫作領域中,經常會看到在用字上明顯的重複或冗餘,科學文章旨在簡明與簡潔的用字。一般來說,英文會避免在同一名詞片語中出現完全相同的主語、標題字、介詞、冠詞、be。透過以下範例介紹如何避免用字冗餘的情形發生。

 

相關文章推薦:如何在寫作中避免冗贅詞句

 

  • 省略多餘的主語

 

當在複合句子中重複相同的主語時,若句子不是太複雜或太長,則刪除重複出現的主語。

 

常見錯誤:

 

Although diesel cars obtain 20 to 30 percent better mileage, and diesel cars emit less carbon dioxide than similar gasoline cars, they can emit 25 to 400 times more black carbon and organic matter per kilometer.

 

編修後:

 

Although diesel cars obtain 20 to 30 percent better mileage and emit less carbon dioxide than similar gasoline cars, they can emit 25 to 400 times more black carbon and organic matter per kilometer.

 

  • 省略多餘的中心名詞

 

若在同一個名詞片語中重複相同的中心名詞,當該名詞片語不會太長或太複雜,或在刪除後並不影響理解的狀況下,則刪除第一個中心名詞。

 

常見錯誤:

 

Although diesel cars obtain 20 percent to 30 percent better mileage and emit less carbon dioxide than similar gasoline cars, they can emit 25 times to 400 times more black carbon matter and organic matter per kilometer.

 

編修後:

 

Although diesel cars obtain 20 to 30 percent better mileage and emit less carbon dioxide than similar gasoline cars, they can emit 25 to 400 times more black carbon and organic matter per kilometer.

 

  • 省略多餘的介係詞

 

若在同一個名詞片語中重複相同的介係詞,則可刪除第二個介係詞。然而,在較複雜或較長的片語中,您可以考慮保留最後一個介係詞作為提示。

 

常見錯誤:

 

Major technical developments in engine design and in engine management systems have vastly improved the overall performance of modern diesel engines.

 

編修後:

 

Major technical developments in engine design and engine management systems have vastly improved the overall performance of modern diesel engines.

 

相關文章推薦:文字精簡的重要性與方法

 

  • 刪除多餘的定冠詞及不定冠詞

 

若在同一個名詞片語中重複相同的冠詞a、an或the,請刪除除了第一個之外的冠詞。然而,在較複雜或冗長的片語中,您可以考慮保留最後一個冠詞作為給讀者的提示。

 

常見錯誤:

 

In diesel engines, the carbon particle (soot) content varies from 60% to 80% depending on the fuel composition, the fuel pump setting, the workload demand on the engine, the engine temperature, and the type of engine used.

 

編修後:

 

In diesel engines, the carbon particle (soot) content varies from 60% to 80% depending on the fuel composition, fuel pump setting, workload demand on the engine, engine temperature, and (the) type of engine used.

 

  • 省略多餘的be動詞或助動詞

 

在複合結構或動詞串中,可以刪除除了第一個以外的所有輔助性的動詞,例如is、are、was、were、has、have、had、can、could、would,這類be動詞和助動詞。此舉更適合在描述實驗過程或所使用的方法。

 

常見錯誤:

 

After scrubbing, the water is filtered to remove particulates, which are trapped and are collected for disposal.

 

編修後:

 

After scrubbing, the water is filtered to remove particulates, which are trapped and collected for disposal.

 

  • 過度使用弱動詞(to be、there is或have)

 

不要過度使用弱動詞,例如to be、there is/are或to have。當讀者試圖找出正在發生或正在進行中的事情時,他們自然會看這些動詞所指涉的動作,但若您將行為隱藏在名詞片語中,則會使讀者模糊焦點。

 

過度使用弱動詞會迫使一個行為以名詞片語的方式表達出來,但其實以動詞直接表示動作才是最精準的。若要修正這種狀況,請在名詞片語中查找被名詞化的動詞形式。

 

  • 一般動詞

 

常見錯誤:

 

The analyzed characteristics were the dry weight (DW), the loss on ignition (IL), as well as concentrations of total phosphorus (Ptot), total nitrogen (Ntot) and total carbon (Ctot).

 

編修後:

 

The following characteristics were analyzed: the dry weight (DW), the loss on ignition (IL), as well as concentrations of total phosphorus (Ptot), total nitrogen (Ntot) and total carbon (Ctot).

 

  • There is/are

 

常見錯誤:

 

There is no harm using cellular phones inside the hospital.

 

編修後:

 

Using cellular phones causes no harm inside the hospital.

 

  • Have的用法

 

常見錯誤:

 

This has the tendency to make log browsing a tedious and ineffective process.

 

編修後:

 

This tends to make log browsing a tedious and ineffective process.

 

  • 學術論文的否定形式

 

學術風格的一個共同特徵是避免使用「not」與「any」。 相反地,也就是希望作者使用little、few與no,多以完整、肯定形式的動詞句子來呈現。

 

  • Not much改為little

 

英語口語:

 

There is not much evidence of communication interference in office situations, where background noise is intermittent.

 

正式學術英語:

 

There is little evidence of communication interference in office situations, where background noise is intermittent.

 

  • Not many改為few

 

英語口語:

 

This study did not observe many examples of product components being designed specifically for easy disassembly.

 

正式學術英語:

 

This study observed few examples of product components being designed specifically for easy disassembly.

 

  • Not改為No

 

英語口語:

 

This study did not observe any examples of product components being designed specifically for easy disassembly.

 

正式學術英語:

 

This study observed no examples of product components being designed specifically for easy disassembly.

 

額外相關閱讀推薦:

  1. 如何策略性地撰寫論文草稿
  2. 容易造成混淆的十種英文寫作錯誤(第二部分)
  3. 如何避免在研究論文中過度濫用介系詞?
  4. 如何在學術寫作中恰當的使用副詞?五個實用的建議
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