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如何在論文中使用「歸類」及「列表」的句型?

2016 / 9 / 15

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研究論文中用於「歸類」及「列表」的句型

歸類的功能常用在論文中較前面的章節。當我們想要有系統地處理或呈現一系列不同的資訊時,便可運用列表的方式將這些資訊加以歸類,表中各項目的順序則表示其重要性的排序。在歸類時,我們依照事物的共同性來分類與命名。這麼一來,對於同一類事物所共有的特質或特徵,便可一目了然。此外,歸類也是了解事物間差異的方法。在寫作時,作者常以歸類的方式向讀者介紹新議題。

 

一般歸類句型

X may be divided into three main classes.
sub-groups.
categories.

 

X may be classified on the basis of
according to
depending on
in terms of
Y into Xi and Xii.

 

例句:

  1. It has become commonplace to distinguish ‘passive’ from ‘active’ forms of X.
  2. Bone is generally classified into two types: X bone, also known as …, and Y bone or …
  3. Systems theory distinguishes two different types of X, i.e. social and semantic Xs (Al-Masry 2013).
  4. There are two main types of memory: declarative and non-declarative memory.
  5. Declarative memory can be broken down into X and Y.
  6. Aristotle’s systematic treatises may be grouped in several divisions: logic, psychological works, physical …
  7. The works of Aristotle fall under three headings: (1) dialogues and …; (2) collections of facts and …; and (3) systematic works.
  8. There are two basic approaches currently being adopted in research into X. One is the Y approach and the other is …
  9. Associative learning can be categorized into classical and operant conditioning.
  10. Classical conditioning was first …
  11. Generally, spectra typing provides two types of information: band intensity pattern and band number.

 

特定歸類句型

In the traditional system, X is graded in terms of …
on the basis of …
according to whether …

 

Smith (1966) divided
classified
grouped
Xs into two broad types: Xi’s and Xii’s.

 

Thomas (1996) describes four basic kinds of validity: logical, content, criterion and construct.

 

例句:

  1. Individuals were classified as belonging to upper or lower categories of …
  2. Smith and Jones (2003) argue that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
  3. For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …
  4. To better understand the mechanisms of X and its therapeutic implications, Smith et al. (2011) classified X into 3 distinct types using …

 

評述歸類系統

This system of classification includes …
allows for …
helps distinguish …
is useful because …
is very simple and …
provides a basis for …
can vary depending on …
was agreed upon after …
has been broadened to include …
was developed for the purpose of …
is more scientific since it is based on …is now out of date.
can be problematic.
is in need of revision.
poses a problem for …
has limited utility with respect to …

 

介紹列表

  1. This topic can best be treated under three headings: X, Y and Z.
  2. The key aspects of management can be listed as follows: X, Y and Z.
  3. There are three reasons why the English language has become so dominant.
  4. These are: …
  5. There are two types of effect which result when a patient undergoes X. These are …
  6. The disadvantages of the new approach can be discussed under three headings, which are: …
  7. The Three Voices for Mass is divided into six sections. These are: the Kyrie, Gloria, ….
  8. Appetitive stimuli have three separable basic functions. Firstly, they … Secondly, they …
  9. This section has been included for several reasons: it is …; it illustrates …; and it describes …

 

引用他人列表

  1. Smith and Jones (1991) list X, Y and Z as the major causes of infant mortality.
  2. Smith (2003) lists the main features of X as follows: it is X; it is Y; and it has Z.
  3. Smith (2003) argues that there are two broad categories of Y, which are: a) … and b) …
  4. Smith (2003) suggests three conditions for its acceptance. Firstly, X should be …

Secondly, it needs to be … Thirdly, …

  1. For Aristotle, motion is of four kinds: (1) motion which …; (2) motion which …; (3) motion which …; and (4) motion which …

 

希望您下次在論文中欲使用歸類或列表時,這些句型能對您有所助益。

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